Keywords: Anesthesia; development; questionnaires; translation; validation How to cite this article: Tsang S, Royse CF, Terkawi AS.
Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine.
It is extremely important for a researcher to know the importance of a proper questionnaire and whether it measures what it is intended to measure.
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Questionnaire validation is a process in which the creators review the questionnaire to determine whether the questionnaire measures what it was designed to measure.
If a questionnaire's validation succeeds, the creators label the questionnaire as a valid questionnaire.
Typically, the researchers create a list of all that the questionnaire is meant to measure and check the items on the questionnaire against this list.
This allows the researchers to ensure that every item corresponds to a desired measurement and that everything that should be measured is actually measured.
Overall, the QPE is a promising new measurement tool in assessing psychotic experiences in a symptom-oriented rather than diagnosis-oriented way. The author may have various reasons for not providing access, for instance because it is prohibited by the commissioner of the research, or because the author is conducting further research on the subject.
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Outcomes Research Consortium, Cleveland, OH, USA, USA Correspondence Address: Siny Tsang Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY USASource of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None The task of developing a new questionnaire or translating an existing questionnaire into a different language might be overwhelming.Introduction and Objectives: Measurement is an essential activity of medical science.In order to acquire data about people, objects, and events proper data collection tools need to be designed which can measure things of scientific interest.Internal consistency was sufficient for most of the factors, but was not sufficiently reliable in some of the extracted factors.The majority of items, as well as the total scale had substantial to perfect inter- rater and test-retest reliability. Conclusions: The obtained psychometric properties of the QPE provided evidence for construct validity and reliability for most of the items, whereas a number of items should be re-evaluated.schizophrenia spectrum and hearing loss) were interviewed with the QPE.