After archaeologists have thoroughly surveyed the site they begin excavation. Then archaeologists excavate the site using trowels, shovels, and various other tools.They start by setting up a grid and connecting the grid to a datum. They carefully remove dirt and note the precise location of any artifacts found.
The Jatakas painted here are Vidhurapandita & Ruru and miracle of Sravasti; Ashtabhaya Avalokitesvara; the dream of Maya.
CAVE 3 This is an incomplete monastery (10.08 X 8.78 m) and only the preliminary excavation of pillared verandah exist.
A datum is a fixed reference point, often one placed by the U. The context of the artifact is just as important as the artifact itself, so the artifacts are always carefully mapped and documented.
Archaeologists also look for features while excavating a site.
Occasionally whole vessels are found, particularly where they have been used as grave goods or cremation 'urns'.
These are important in providing us with a type series of vessel forms, although broken vessels can be just as useful for this. The clay from which it is made often contains pieces of burnt flint or other stone and the pottery appears very coarse.
CAVE 1 The squarish (35.7 x 27.6 m) monastery, consists of a hall sided by 14 cells, vestibule, sanctum sanctorum, an open verandah (19.5 X 2.82 X 4.1 m) flanked by a cell on each side and a open courtyard with two cells on the sides, datable to 4th 5th centuries A. Importantly it represents a seated Buddha in dharmacakrapravartana mudra (preaching attitude) in the sanctum and world fame painted depiction of Padmapani and Vajrapani.
Besides it depicts Sibi, Samkhapala, Mahajanaka, Maha-ummagga, Champeyya Jatakas and the scene depicting temptation of Mara.
The cave was once painted, traces of which can be noticed.