This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
So, we have a “clock” which starts ticking the moment something dies.
Obviously, this works only for things which were once living.
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The chemical properties of atoms depend on the number of protons in their nuclei, placing them into the periodic table.
But what's interesting is as soon as you die and you're not ingesting anymore plants, or breathing from the atmosphere if you are a plant, or fixing from the atmosphere. Once a plant dies, it's no longer taking in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and turning it into new tissue. And this carbon-14 does this decay at a specific rate. And you say, hey, that bone has one half the carbon-14 of all the living things that you see right now.
And then you can use that rate to actually determine how long ago that thing must've died. It would be a pretty reasonable estimate to say, well, that thing must be 5,730 years old.
Levels of carbon-14 become difficult to measure and compare after about 50,000 years (between 8 and 9 half lives; where 1% of the original carbon-14 would remain undecayed).
The question should be whether or not carbon-14 can be used to date any artifacts at all? There are a few categories of artifacts that can be dated using carbon-14; however, they cannot be more 50,000 years old.
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Carbon-14 cannot be used to date biological artifacts of organisms that did not get their carbon dioxide from the air.